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1, which vests the federal judicial power "in one Supreme Court, and in any inferior courts Congress may from time to time ordain and establish." Since the lower federal courts would not even exist if Congress had not passed laws creating them, Congress's power to limit their jurisdiction is beyond question. as the Congress shall make." Since only a small part of the Court's jurisdiction is original, and almost all of it is appellate, the Exceptions Clause gives Congress a strong restraint on the Court's power to decide cases.
The part of the Constitution relevant to limiting the Supreme Court's power to hear cases is Article III, sec. 2, which makes the Court's appellate jurisdiction subject to "such exceptions . Congress once used its Exceptions Clause power to make a law removing the Court's power to decide a case it had already taken. A plaintiff would still be free to challenge the constitutionality of a state abortion law in that state's courts.
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But if the state law prohibited abortion, that is the law its courts would be applying to the case, and they might very well not interpret the Constitution the same way the Supreme Court had.
And if the case reached the state supreme court, no federal court would any longer have jurisdiction to hear an appeal from its decision. States, as sovereigns, have inherent power to make laws and policies regulating the public health, safety, and welfare--what the Supreme Court has usually called the "police power." How they enforce those laws is a separate question, but states obviously manage to prosecute many thousands of violations of criminal laws of all sorts every day.
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